超级计算机之争 中国力压美国

文章出处:bob综合体育官网登录入口 人气:发表时间:2023-09-21 17:18
本文摘要:SAN FRANCISCO — A new list of the world’s fastest supercomputers provides more evidence that the once-yawning technology gap between the United States and China is closing.旧金山——全球最慢超级计算机的近期排名榜获取了更进一步的证据,指出美国和中国之间曾多次占优势的技术差距正在增大。


SAN FRANCISCO — A new list of the world’s fastest supercomputers provides more evidence that the once-yawning technology gap between the United States and China is closing.旧金山——全球最慢超级计算机的近期排名榜获取了更进一步的证据,指出美国和中国之间曾多次占优势的技术差距正在增大。China dominates a biannual ranking of the world’s 500 fastest supercomputers, called the Top500, that was published on Monday. Not only does China have the world’s fastest machine for the seventh consecutive time, it has the largest number of computers among the top 500 — a first for any country other than the United States.“全球最慢超级计算机500强劲”(Top500)每两年改版一次,近期榜匈奴本周一公布。中国不仅倒数第七次沦为世界上最慢计算机的拥有者,而且打进500强劲的数量也是最少的——这是第一次有美国以外的国家做这一点。Also for the first time, the world’s fastest supercomputer uses Chinese-made microprocessor chips instead of chips from Silicon Valley’s Intel.而且这也是第一次,全球最慢的超级计算机用于了中国生产的微处理器芯片,而不是来自硅谷英特尔(Intel)的芯片。

Supercomputers are viewed in scientific circles as an indicator of national technology leadership, and they are vital for research in areas ranging from the development of new weapons and medicines, to the design of cars and consumer products. American computing experts and business executives have warned for years that leadership in supercomputing is vital to a range of national interests.在科学界,超级计算机被视作一个国家技术领先地位的指标,从新型武器和药品研发,到汽车和消费类产品的设计,超级计算机都充分发挥着十分最重要的起到。多年来,美国计算出来专家和企业高管们都警告说道,在超级计算机领域的领军地位对国家的很多利益至关重要。“Today even consumer detergent bottles are designed with supercomputers,” said Eric D. Isaacs, a physicist and provost of the University of Chicago. “The Chinese are getting good at building these computers, and it’s a competitive issue now for U.S. industry and national security.”“今天,甚至连民用洗涤剂的瓶子都是用超级计算机设计的,”芝加哥大学物理学家、教务长埃里克·D·艾萨克斯(Eric D. Isaacs)说道。

“中国更加擅于修建这些计算机,现在对美国的产业和国家安全性来说,这出了一个竞争力的问题。”The United States primacy on the Top500 list has slipped for a number of reasons. Government support for supercomputing has been slowed by long-running debates on the level of federal spending on basic scientific research, as well as opposition to funding for industrial innovation that is not directly related to national security.美国在500强劲名单上丧失领头羊地位的原因有很多。

政府在联邦层面的基础科学研究投放长期存在争辩,而且一些人赞成政府资助那些与国家安全性没必要关系的产业创意,所以政府对超级计算出来的反对早已有所上升。In the private sector, companies like Google, Microsoft, Facebook and Amazon invested billions of dollars in cloud-computing centers that don’t focus as much on solving scientific problems.在私营部门,像谷歌、微软公司、Facebook和亚马逊这样的公司投放了数以十亿收的美元在云计算中心上,而解决问题科学问题并不是云服务的侧重点。

And last year, the United States blocked the sale of a number of advanced microprocessors to China over concerns they were being used in nuclear weapon development, which most likely accelerated the development of China’s own technology, said Jack Dongarra, a University of Tennessee computer scientist who helped create the list of the world’s fastest computers in 1993.去年,美国封锁了一些先进设备微处理器对中国的出口,担忧中国利用它们发展核武器,田纳西大学(University of Tennessee)的计算机科学家杰克·唐加拉(Jack Dongarra)说道,这些处理器近于有可能用来减缓中国的自律技术研发。他曾在1993年参予创立最初的全球最慢计算机榜单。The Top500 list is maintained by Dr. Dongarra and Erich Strohmaier, a physicist at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Individual computing centers report descriptions and performance to them twice a year.这个500强劲榜单是由唐加拉和劳伦斯伯克利国家实验室(Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory)的物理学家埃里希·施特罗迈尔(Erich Strohmaier)联合确保的。各计算中心每两年向他们汇报一次情况和性能。

In 2001, there were no Chinese supercomputers on the Top500. Now, China has 167 systems on the list compared to 165 from the United States. China also leads a more obscure category — total processing power, or the combined computing speeds of all of its supercomputers on the list.2001年时,500强劲名单中没任何超级计算机来自中国。而现在,名单下有167座超级计算机来自中国,165座来自美国。而且中国在一个较为偏远的类别中也正处于领先地位——总处置能力,即一个国家所有前十名的超级计算机加总后的速度。The fastest machine, the Sunway TaihuLight System, was installed this year at the National Supercomputing Center in Wuxi, in China’s Jiangsu province.最慢的计算机取名为“神威·太湖之光”,是今年在江苏省无锡的国家超级计算中心加装的。

Despite those achievements, Intel still provided the chips for 91 percent of the machines on the list. And China is still catching up with the United States in state-of-the-art technologies, like software and the networking that links the thousands of chips in a modern supercomputer.尽管获得了这些成就,但前十名计算机中91%的芯片仍来自英特尔。中国的顶尖技术,如软件和相连现代超级计算机中数以千计的芯片的网络,仍然领先于美国。

But that could soon change. Officials at the Semiconductor Industry Association, a trade group, said the Chinese government has an ambitious $150 billion program to acquire as well as develop new technologies in various kinds of chips.但这种情况有可能迅速就不会再次发生转变。行业的组织半导体行业协会(Semiconductor Industry Association)称之为,中国政府制订了一个野心勃勃的计划,想投放1500亿美元出售和研发各类芯片的新技术。After years of neglect, the United States does appear to be taking the competitive threat seriously, said John Neuffer, president of the S.I.A. “It’s an opportunity for us to double down on supercomputing and get ourselves back on track,” he said.该协会的主席约翰·诺伊弗(John Neuffer)回应,多年忽略此事的美国或许的确很推崇这个竞争威胁。

“这是我们在超级计算出来上加倍投放,重振旗鼓的机会,”他说道。Last year, the Obama administration began a new effort to develop a so-called “exascale” supercomputer that would be 10 times faster than today’s fastest supercomputers. (An exaflop is a quintillion — one million trillion — mathematical instructions a second.) Computer scientists have argued that such machines will allow more definitive answers on crucial questions such as the danger posed by climate change.去年,奥巴马政府启动了一个新项目,内容是研发所谓的“艾级”超级计算机。这种计算机的速度将是当今最慢的超级计算机的十倍。


Until President Obama signed the National Strategic Computing Initiative last July, the construction of the fastest American supercomputers had largely been driven by the nation’s Stockpile Stewardship and Management program, which was created in 1995 to simulate the testing and maintenance of nuclear weapons.在奥巴马总统去年7月签订国家战略计算出来计划(National Strategic Computing Initiative)之前,修建美国最慢的超级计算机的工作主要由美国核武储备管理计划(Stockpile Stewardship and Management)推展。该计划1995年启动,目的仿真核武器的测试和确保。While the Chinese have perfected the manufacture of traditional supercomputers pioneered by American companies like IBM and Cray, the United States may focus on new, more efficient supercomputers that might lead to machines intended for challenges like artificial intelligence, according to Larry Smarr, a physicist who directs the California Institute for Telecommunications and Information Technology at the University of California, San Diego.中国完备了IBM和克雷(Cray)等美国公司首创的传统超级计算机的生产,然而美国现在的侧重点有可能是效率更高的新型超级计算机。据加州大学圣迭戈分校加州通信与信息技术研究所(California Institute for Telecommunications and Information Technology at the University of California, San Diego)所长拉里·斯马(Larry Smarr)讲解,这种超级计算机可能会促成专门应付人工智能等挑战的计算机。

One of the design challenges of the fastest computers is their vast power consumption. The world’s fastest supercomputer in China, which could fill a large warehouse, requires the same electric power needed to run roughly 15,000 homes. An exascale supercomputer will very likely require more than twice that amount of power, or roughly the amount of power produced by the Copper Mountain Solar Facility, the largest producer of solar power in the United States.最慢的计算机面对的一个设计挑战在于它们极大的功耗。中国那台全世界运营速度最慢的超级计算机的体积相等于一个大仓库,用电量大体相等于1.5万户家庭。艾级超级计算机的用电量很有可能是它的两倍多,或者说相等于美国仅次于的太阳能发电设施铜山太阳能项目(Copper Mountain Solar Facility)的发电量。

At the same time, even if the United States is able to design an exascale computer within the next decade, the Chinese could get there first. According to Dr. Dongarra, the Chinese government is committed to reaching the exascale goal by the end of this decade.与此同时,即便美国能在十年内设计出有艾级计算机,中国可能会首度构建这个目标。据唐加拉称之为,中国政府致力于在这个十年完结前超过艾级计算出来。


Because of funding shortages and technology challenges, “there has been a delay in getting the exascale launched in the U.S., and as a result, we’re further behind than we should be,” he said.因为资金不足和技术挑战,“美国生产艾级计算机的计划经常出现延后,因此,我们更进一步领先于本应当超过的水平,”他说道。The Sunway supercomputer in Wuxi is a marvel of Chinese manufacturing prowess, Dr. Dongorra noted. The computer is based on 10.6 million processor “cores” spread across 40,960 microprocessors that work together. The chips are relatively slow individually — about the speed of the processor in Apple’s iPhone 6.唐加拉称之为,无锡的超级计算机神威是中国生产实力的象征物。该计算机的基础产于在40960个微处理器上的1060万个处理器“核”。这些芯片分开运营时速度比较较快,约相等于苹果iPhone 6的处理器速度。

The Sunway machine does have its shortcomings. It has older memory-chip technology, meaning it is limited in the speed with which it can move data in and out of each processor when compared with the most powerful American supercomputers. And the new Chinese supercomputer is still based on American-made optical network technology that is used to connect the thousands of microprocessor chips.神威也有自己的缺点。它的存储芯片技术较杨家,这意味著和最强劲的美国超级计算机比起,它的各处理器数据交换速度受限。同时,中国的新型超级计算机仍创建在美国研发的光网络技术上。该技术被用作相连成千上万的微处理器芯片。

Despite the fact that the Chinese now have the most supercomputers on the list, the United States still dominates the top 20, with 10 machines. There are now 105 supercomputers in Europe. Japan has 29 systems on the list, down from 37 systems in November.尽管中国前十名的超级计算机最多,但名列前二十的超级计算机仍以美国的居多,占到了10台。欧洲现在有105台超强计算机。

名单上日本的超级计算机从11月的37台降到现在的29台。Several American scientists compared what is going on now to the 1980s, when they worried that the nation was losing ground to Japanese supercomputers.几名美国科学家将目前的情况比作上世纪80年代。那时,他们担忧在超级计算机领域,美国正在败给日本。“Scientists might be saying, ‘I have to go to China to run my computations,’” said Dr. Smarr.“科学家可能会说道,‘我被迫去中国运营我的计算出来,”斯马说道。





Copyright © 2003-2023 www.klntgc.com. bob综合体育官网登录入口科技 版权所有  http://www.klntgc.com  XML地图  bob综合体育官网登录入口(中国)官方网站IOS/安卓通用版/手机APP